Traditional incentives for investment in research, development, and delivery have failed to stimulate innovation that addresses the pressing health needs of the global poor. Millions in least developed and developing economies die because of suboptimal investment in technologies like treatments for neglected tropical diseases, palatable pediatric HIV/AIDS antiretroviral formulations, or vaccines that do not require a cold chain. Global Access in Action is evaluating which alternative incentive mechanisms – such as prizes, challenges, advanced market commitments, public-private partnerships, and others – hold the greatest promise for promoting socially beneficial innovation in healthcare and medicine. We plan to look beyond theory, and to solicit the input of experts from industry, civil society, international procurement and donor agencies, government, and academia to explore potential avenues for incentivizing the development of medical technology for underserved populations. We will identify best practices and develop and promote clear, concrete, and effective policy recommendations that will aim to reduce the disparity in global health outcomes by improving incentives to develop much-needed products for the global poor.